Preparation, Characterization and Thermal Decomposition Properties of ANPyO@PDA Composites
ZHANG Gongzhen, HE Zhiwei, RAN Xianwen, CHENG Wei, WANG Yangwen, LI Zhiyuan, ZHANG He
2023, 37(6): 063402.
Acoustic and Elastic Properties of Polycrystalline Potassium Sodium Niobate under High Pressures
XIAO Likang, FENG Qiu, FANG Leiming, ZHOU Zhangyang, XIONG Zhengwei, LAN Jianghe, YANG Jia, LIU Yi, GAO Zhipeng
2023, 37(6): 061101.
Quantum Magnetic Measurement under High Pressure Based on Color Centres in Silicon Carbide
LIU Lin, WANG Junfeng, LIU Xiaodi
2023, 37(6): 060102.
Articles in press have been peer-reviewed and accepted, which are not yet assigned to volumes /issues, but are citable by Digital Object Identifier (DOI).
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Topics on Perovskite Oxides
A-Site Ordered Quadruple Perovskite Oxides: Structures, Properties and Prospects
WANG Xiao, LIU Zhehong, LU Dabiao, PI Maocai, PAN Zhao, LONG Youwen
2024, 38(1): 010101.   doi: 10.11858/gywlxb.20230785
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A-site ordered quadruple perovskite oxides with a formula as $\rm AA'_3 B^{\;}_4 O^{\;}_{12}$ exhibit multiple physical properties and superior performances, thus act as important subjects of current condensed matter physics and material science. Compared to the simple ABO3 perovskite, in the A-site ordered quadruple perovskite three quarters of the A atoms are replaced by transition metal Aʹ, forming ordered A/Aʹ occupancy with a 1∶3 ratio. As a result, the electric and magnetic interactions such as Aʹ-Aʹ and Aʹ-B can occur, leading to novel phenomena and new physics. Here we focus on several representative A-site ordered quadruple perovskites, recall their researches, briefly introduce their structures, physical properties and inner mechanisms, and discuss the opportunities for both fundamental studies and potential applications.

High Pressure Synthesis and Physical Properties Investigation of Pb-Based Simple Perovskite Oxides PbMO3 (M=3d transition metals)
YU Runze
2024, 38(1): 010102.   doi: 10.11858/gywlxb.20230786
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In this paper, we reviewed the recent progress on the high-pressure synthesis of Pb-based simple perovskite compounds PbMO3 (M=3d transition metals) and the investigation on their physical properties, mainly focusing on the M dependent crystal structure, electronic configuration, magnetism, transport properties, pressure induced structure phase transition, charge transfer and insulator to metal transitions. We also gave a comment on the unresolve problems in this system.

Cooling Fields Induced Giant Magnetoresistance in High-Pressure Synthesized Double Perovskite Y2NiIrO6
PENG Yi, DENG Zheng, LI Wenmin, SHI Luchuan, ZHAO Jianfa, ZHANG Jun, WANG Xiancheng, JIN Changqing
2024, 38(1): 010103.   doi: 10.11858/gywlxb.20230781
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Double perovskite Y2NiIrO6 is a ferrimagnetic material with Curie temperature of 192 K. It has drawn wide attention owing to its remarkable exchange-bias effect. Here, we studied the low-temperature crystal structure, electron transport properties and magnetoresistance of Y2NiIrO6. The crystal structure under 130 K is almost identical with that of room-temperature. The material shows semiconducting behavior in the temperature range of 130 to 300 K. Above Curie temperature it can be well describe as Efros-Shklovskii variable-range hopping model. Below Curie temperature, a departure occurs due to the forming of long-range ferrimagnetic ordering. It is interesting to find that the magnetic ordering results into negative magneto-resistance. Moreover, giant magnetoresistance up to –10% is induced by cooling field of 7.0 T. This mechanism of this remarkable effect provides a new boulevard to discover new type of giant magneto-resistance materials.

High-Pressure Synthesis of Copper-Based Rare-Earth Perovskite La1–xNdxCuO3 (0≤x≤1)
SUN Hao, YE Pengda, LIU Yuwei, JIN Meiling, LI Xiang
2024, 38(1): 010104.   doi: 10.11858/gywlxb.20230784
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The copper-based rare-earth perovskites La1–xNdxCuO3(0≤x≤1) have been synthesized in the two-stage Walker-type high-pressure apparatus. The refined crystal structure results revealed that La1–xNdxCuO3 (0≤x≤0.4) adopts a rhombohedral structure with the space group $R\overline 3 c $. When 0.5≤x≤0.7, a mixed phase with both $R\overline 3 c $ rhombohedral and Pnma orthorhombic structures was observed in the system. With a further increase in Nd3+ doping, the system exhibits a single Pnma orthorhombic phase when x=0.8, 0.9 and 1. A comprehensive structural phase diagram of La1–xNdxCuO3 (0≤x≤1) was established in this study, providing a new material platform for investigating the magnetic properties, metal-insulator transitions, and other physical property evolutions in rare-earth 3d transition metal oxides.

Prediction of Synthesis Condition and Magnetic Property of Screened Metallic Double-Perovskite Antiferromagnet Mn2FeOsO6
LI Jun, JIN Shangjian, ZHAO Shuang, YAO Daoxin, LI Manrong
2024, 38(1): 010105.   doi: 10.11858/gywlxb.20230783
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We present a theoretical approach for predicting the electron configuration, polymorph, synthesis condition, and physical properties of complex magnetic double perovskite compounds. Our method is reasonable and computationally efficient, allowing us to identify an antiferromagnetic (AFM) metallic material, namely Mn2FeOsO6, with a high AFM Néel transition temperature (TN). Through extensive analysis, we demonstrate that Mn2FeOsO6 possesses a high density of states near the Fermi level and an AFM configuration, resulting in a zero total magnetic moment. Our findings suggest that the expectedTN of Mn2FeOsO6 is as high as 680 K, representing a potential breakthrough in the field of spintronics. We have also constructed a sophisticated magnetic model for this material, and obtained a reasonably reliable magnetic excitation spectrum potentially comparable with neutron scattering spectra. This theoretical approach provides synthesis conditions that are consistent with many synthesized double perovskite compounds in experiments, and it holds promise for the prediction of other complex magnetic configurations. Our study may play a key role in the big data prediction of novel double perovskite materials.

Theory and Calculation
Electric Explosion Early Process Analysis of Metal Bridge Foil Based on an Electromagnetic-Thermal-Mechanical Model
WANG Ganghua, XIE Long, XIAO Bo, WANG Qiang, TANG Jiupeng, OU Haibin, KAN Mingxian, DUAN Shuchao
2024, 38(1): 012301.   doi: 10.11858/gywlxb.20230711
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The electrical explosion of metal bridge foil is a key physical process in many fields, e.g. electric guns and slapper detonator. Due to the complexity of material properties, dynamic processes, and effects of geometric configurations, a large amount of earlier theoretical simulations used simplified physical models. In this paper, a three-dimensional electromagnetic-thermal-mechanical model was established. which was a full physical model describing the early behavior of explosive foil. The early thermal expansion process of the explosive foil under large current loading was simulated, and the evolution of magnetic field, current, temperature, expansion speed of the foil was analyzed. The phenomena of angular and linear current diffusions induced by the configuration and the resistivity were observed in the simulation. The temperature distribution in the bridge region obtained from the simulation is qualitatively consistent with experiment and simulation results of literature.

Dynamic Response of Matter
Dynamic Behavior and Constitutive Relationship of Titanium Alloy Ti6Al4V under High Temperature and High Strain Rate
YANG Dong, JIANG Ziwei, ZHENG Zhijun
2024, 38(1): 014101.   doi: 10.11858/gywlxb.20230743
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The dynamic mechanical behavior and microstructure evolution of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V under shock compression at temperatures ranging from 25 ℃ to 800 ℃ and strain rates from 2000 s−1 to 7000 s−1 were studied by using a split Hopkinson pressure bar. The temperature dependence and strain rate sensitivity of the material’s mechanical response were analyzed, and a modified Johnson-Cook model that could accurately characterize the plastic flow behavior of the material was developed. The results show that Ti6Al4V exhibited significant strain hardening, strain rate strengthening, strain rate plasticity, and temperature softening effects. With increasing loading temperature and strain rate, the material’s strain hardening effect is weakened. The temperature sensitivity is significantly decreased with increasing loading temperature. The strain rate sensitivity factor is negatively correlated with the loading temperature, and it shows a downward trend as the true strain increased. At high temperatures and high strain rates, fine equiaxial α phase, elongated α phase, and massive α phase replace the initial equiaxial α phase as the typical microstructure features of Ti6Al4V. The modified Johnson-Cook model that considers the effect of rate-temperature coupling and adiabatic temperature rise can accurately predict the plastic flow stress-strain response of Ti6Al4V.

Damage Failure and Anti-Blast Performance of Concrete-Infilled Double Steel Corrugated-Plate Wall under Near Field Explosion
ZHAO Chunfeng, ZHANG Li, LI Xiaojie
2024, 38(1): 014102.   doi: 10.11858/gywlxb.20230727
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Compared with the traditional reinforced concrete and profiled double-skin composite wall (PDSCW), concrete-infilled double steel corrugated-plate wall (CDSCW) has better axial compressive capacity, lateral flexural stiffness, impact resistance and seismic performance, which has broad application prospect in ship and military field. In this paper, two types of CDSCW specimens were designed and produced. Firstly, the damage modes and dynamic responses of the two specimens were analyzed and compared through near-field explosion test. Secondly, the finite element model of CDSCW was established by using ANSYS/LS-DYNA software. The damage mechanism and explosion response of CDSCW and PDSCW under near-field explosion were studied, and the results were compared with the test results. Finally, effects of concrete thickness, steel plate thickness and charge quantity on the anti-blast performance of corrugated double steel plate composite wall board were analyzed. The results show that, compared with PDSCW, CDSCW with the same concrete and component size (length and width) have greater flexural rigidity, energy dissipation capacity, and better knock resistance performance under near field explosion. Increasing the corrugated depth can effectively improve the anti-blast performance of CDSCW, which provides reference for the design of anti-blast component and related engineering research.

Quantitative Determination of Impact Reaction Energy Release for HfZrTiTaNb Based High-Entropy Alloys
GUO Zihan, CHEN Chuang, TU Yiliang, TANG Enling
2024, 38(1): 014103.   doi: 10.11858/gywlxb.20230817
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As a new type of energetic material, high-entropy alloys will release a large amount of energy during high-speed impact, which has important application value. A two-stage light gas gun system was used to load the HfZrTiTaNb high-entropy alloys projectile under vacuum environment, and the impact experiment of bearing steel was carried out. The evolution process of response parameters such as flash radiation temperature, gas overpressure, flame propagation velocity and temperature rise of container wall was measured. The energy flow direction during the impact reaction of the high-entropy alloys projectile impacting the target plate was analyzed. The enthalpy of the mixed gas, the flash radiation energy, the absorption energy of the container wall, the enthalpy of the ejected gas and the deformation energy generated by the impact on the target during the impact reaction of the high-entropy alloys in a closed container were quantitatively calculated. The effects of different elements and their contents on the energy release of high-entropy alloys were obtained. The results showed that the energy released by the impact reaction of high-entropy alloys projectiles was mainly absorbed by the quasi-closed container wall. With the increase of Cu or Al content, the unit mass release energy of HfZrTiTaNb based high-entropy alloys increased. At similar impact velocities, the high-entropy alloys containing Cu released more energy per unit mass than the high-entropy alloys containing Al.

Mechanical Properties and Energy Evolution Characteristics of Fracture-Bearing Rocks under Uniaxial Compression
WANG Erbo, WANG Zhifeng, WANG Yaqiong
2024, 38(1): 014201.   doi: 10.11858/gywlxb.20230746
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To study the influence of crack inclination angle on the mechanical properties and the energy evolution mechanism during the rock failure, a calculation model was constructed based on the particle flow dispersion element numerical platform, and uniaxial compression numerical experiments were conducted on rock samples with different crack inclination angles. The research results indicate that as the crack inclination angle increases, the peak strength and elastic modulus of fractured rocks show a “V” shaped trend of first decreasing and then increasing. When the crack inclination angle is small, the rock sample mainly undergoes shear failure and vertical splitting failure, and the number of tensile and shear cracks mainly increases in a stepped pattern. The larger the crack inclination angle, the more the rock failure mode will transition to a mixture of vertical splitting and shear failure, and the curve of the number of tensile and shear cracks will increase exponentially. As the crack inclination angle increases, the total input energy and elastic strain energy of the rock sample show a trend of first decreasing and then increasing. The larger the crack inclination angle, the faster the increase in dissipated energy, but the lower the final dissipated energy when the rock sample fails. The existence of cracks significantly weakens the energy storage limit, weakens the ability of the rock to absorb and store elastic strain energy, and enhances its energy dissipation ability at peak stress in the rock specimen during compressive failure.

Numerical Simulation on Internal Explosion Resistance of Concrete Frame Structures with Kinked Rebar
YIN Huawei, CHEN Benzheng
2024, 38(1): 014202.   doi: 10.11858/gywlxb.20230712
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Artificial plastic hinges have been widely used in the seismic research of frame structures, which can control the location of the beam plastic hinges and avoid the continuous collapse of the frame structure due to the damage of beam-column joints in earthquakes. The design goal of “strong column weak beam” can be achieved. An artificial plastic hinge with kinked rebar provides a new idea for structural blast resistance. Established structural static load tests have shown that the kinked rebar has excellent deformation performance. The ultimate load capacity of beam with kinded rebar is not reduced. With the software ANSYS/LS-DYNA and the hybrid finite element modeling approach, a numerical simulation study of reinforced concrete frame structures with different kinked rebar schemes was carried out. The results showed that the beam with kinked rebar can absorb the impact energy, reduce the support reaction, delay the peak reaction force, protect the beam-column joints, limit the damage to beam-slab members, and prevent the continuous collapse of frame structre.

High Pressure Applications
Influence of Penetration Deflection by the Shape of Tail Oblique Cone of Projectile
ZHANG Dingshan, ZHANG Bo, FU Liang, XU Xiao, LI Pengfei
2024, 38(1): 015101.   doi: 10.11858/gywlxb.20230728
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Aiming at the problem of deflection when the projectile obliquely penetrates a multi-layer target, a theoretical calculation model of the projectile deflection caused by the oblique cone structure of the projectile tail is established, and the change rule of the deflection with the tail structure is obtained at the working conditions of the velocity of 0.2−1.2 km/s, the angle of attraction of −30°−20°, the radius of the projectile body of 30–60 mm, and the angle between bevel plane of tail and the projectile shaft of 0°−4°. Moreover, the accuracy of the model is verified by comparing with the test results. The results showed that the tail of the projectile forms a negative deflection moment and the projectile produces a “head down” effect when the tail of the projectile penetrated upward target, and the tail of the projectile forms a positive deflection moment and the projectile produces a “head up” effect when the tail of the projectile penetrated downward target; the deflection moment of vertical axis is about 100 times greater than that of parallel axis. The deflecting moment can be increased by increasing the angle between bevel plane of tail and the projectile shaft, the length of the tail, and the radius of the projectile. Increasing the angle between bevel plane of tail and the projectile shaft is more effective in increasing the deflection moment than increasing the tail length.

Load Characteristics of Underwater Explosion Shock Wave near Seabed Charge Projectile
WU Yixuan, SHAO Yan, XIE Yujie, GAO Honglin, ZHANG Zhifan
2024, 38(1): 015102.   doi: 10.11858/gywlxb.20230744
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The near-seabed explosion shock wave can cause serious damage to such facilities as submarine optical cables and pipelines. The spatiotemporal evolution of the underwater explosion shock wave can be affected by the impedance of different types of substrate. Therefore, it is of great significance to study the near-seabed explosion shock wave load under different substrate conditions. Based on the coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian (CEL) method, a numerical model of near seabed explosion is established to investigate the effect of seabed material on the shock wave load of near seabed explosions. The results show that the seabed material significantly affects the peak pressure of the shock wave within a certain range of measuring point angles of 20°–50°. The reflection effect of the near seabed increases with the increase of the explosion distance ratio within a certain range of measurement point angles of 20°–50°. When the measurement point angle exceeds this range, this phenomenon gradually disappears. The effect regions of these two types of seabed sediment are similar while their reflection coefficients are significantly different. When the seafloor sediment is soft, the reflection coefficient near seafloor ranges from 0.81 to 1.05. However, when the seafloor sediment is hard, the reflection coefficient near seafloor ranges from 0.98 to 1.33. The water depth has little effect on the peak pressure of the shock wave.

Synergistic Effect of Air Supply Volume and Bubble Curtain Layer on the Shock Wave Attenuation of Underwater Explosion
DU Mingran, CHEN Zhifan, LU Shaofeng, LIANG Jin, LI Jirui, WANG Yinjun, WANG Tianzhao, CHEN Yuhang
2024, 38(1): 015103.   doi: 10.11858/gywlxb.20230705
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The bubble curtain can effectively weaken the influence of underwater shock wave on the surrounding environment. In order to investigate the synergistic effect of air supply volume and bubble curtain layer on the shock wave attenuation of underwater explosion, underwater explosion tests with one layer, two layers and three layers were designed under the air supply volume of 30, 60, and 90 L/min, respectively. The results show that the attenuance of bubble curtain increases with the increase of air supply volume and layer number. When the air supply is small (such as 30, 60 L/min), with the increase of the number of bubble curtain layers, the attenuation efficiency of the peak pressure between adjacent layers becomes worse; when the air supply is large (such as 90 L/min), with the increase of the number of bubble curtain layers, the attenuation efficiency of the peak pressure between adjacent layers becomes better. Combined with the economic benefits of the actual project and the complex underwater environment problems to analyze the attenuation effect of the bubble curtain, it was determined that the two-layer bubble curtain with the air supply rate of 30 L/min was the optimal attenuation scheme, which provides reference and new ideas for related practical engineering problems.

Co-Inhibition of Methane Explosion by CO2-Porous Materials
XIANG Kaijun, DUAN Yulong, HE Guoqin, HUANG Wei
2024, 38(1): 015201.   doi: 10.11858/gywlxb.20230730
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In order to explore the influence of CO2 and porous materials on methane explosion characteristics, the 100 mm×100 mm×1000 mm explosion pipeline was independently designed. The influence of porosity of different porous materials and CO2 injection pressure on methane explosion flame structure, flame propagation velocity and explosion overpressure were examined. The results show that: the porous material has two opposite effects on flame wave attenuation and promotion. When the porosity of the porous material is 10 and 20 PPI, it fails to resist the explosion, but when the porosity is 40 PPI, the explosion resistance is evident. CO2 jet pressure has a certain effect on explosion resistance. When the porous material is 10 and 20 PPI, the peak flame velocity decreases gradually with an increase in CO2 jet pressure, the maximum attenuation rate is 13.64%, and the maximum attenuation rate of the peak explosion overpressure is 52.83%. According to the variations of flame velocity and pressure, the porosity of the porous material is 40 PPI, and the CO2 jet pressure is 0.4 MPa, the explosion suppression effect is the optimal.

Effect of Various Material Obstacles on the Promoting Explosion of Methane-Hydrogen Premixed Gas
JIAO Yifei, XIONG Xiaoman, REN Hao, MI Hongfu, HE Guoqin, LI Pin, WEI Xin
2024, 38(1): 015202.   doi: 10.11858/gywlxb.20230682
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Three obstacles with different levels of bending strength was selected for experimental research on the impact of hydrogen-methane mixed gas explosions in order to explore the varying environmental hazards of explosion promotion. During the experiment, the images of the flame in the explosion pipeline and the upstream and downstream pressure were collected. Through the analysis of flame images and explosion pressure data, the flow field accelerated by expanding gas after explosion generates eddy currents behind obstacles, and the flow field produces different eddy currents behind obstacles of different materials, which result in the difference of peak flame velocity of gas in the later stage and the difference of explosion overpressure in pipelines. This proves the correlation between the intensity of promoting explosions and the material of obstacles. In the experiments conducted in this paper, there is a proportional relationship between the intensity of promoting explosions and the bending strength of the obstacle. Moreover, after hydrogen was added, the reaction of the gas base was accelerated and the peak explosion pressure in the obstacle pipes of the three materials began to produce obvious differences. It can be concluded that obstacles and rough walls in the environment will affect the gas explosion effect, and the difference is caused by the characteristics of the material itself, and the difference is affected by the combustion rate of the gas itself.

Experimental Study of the Effect of Shear Stress on Phase Transition in c-Axis CdS Single Crystal under Dynamic Loading
TANG Zhi-Ping, Gupta Y M
1989, 3(4): 290-297 .   doi: 10.11858/gywlxb.1989.04.005
[Abstract](13527) [PDF 8643KB](2205)
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For a long time, the problem whether shear stress affects the phase transition initial pressure is not well solved. Duvall and Graham suggested that cadmium sulfide (CdS) crystal could be used to study the effect of shear stress on the initial pressure of phase transition in c-axis CdS single crystal specimens under high velocity impact systematically. The axial stress of initial phase transition measured is T=(3.250.1) GPa, corresponding to a mean pressure pT=(2.290.07) GPa, which agrees the value 2.3 GPa of static results quite well within the experimental error. The shear stress in this case, T=0.72 GPa, is as high as 31.5% of the mean pressure. This result shows that the mechanism of phase transition may be assumed only to relate to a critical mean pressure or critical thermodynamic state, and the effect of shear stress can be ignored.
Flattening of Cylindrical Shells under External Uniform Pressure at Creep
Shesterikov S A, Lokochtchenko A M
1992, 6(4): 247-253 .   doi: 10.11858/gywlxb.1992.04.002
[Abstract](9496) [PDF 2836KB](1963)
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Experimental studies of the deformation of cylindrical shells under creep to fracture conditions are described in this paper. Analyses of three series of test shells are given and experimental and theoretical results are compared with each other.
The Generation of 90 GPa Quasi-Hydrostatic Pressures and the Measurements of Pressure Distribution
LIU Zhen-Xian, CUI Qi-Liang, ZOU Guang-Tian
1989, 3(4): 284-289 .   doi: 10.11858/gywlxb.1989.04.004
[Abstract](15346) [PDF 6073KB](2615)
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Quasi-hydrostatic pressures up to 90 GPa were obtained at room temperature in the diamond cell by using solid argon as pressure medium. The pressure distribution was determined by measuring the special shift of the R1 line of ruby at different positions within the sample chamber. Experimental results showed that the pressure differences (p) between the pressures at each point within the chamber and the mean pressure (p) were very small, ratios of p/p were less than 1.5% when below 80 GPa. The shape of ruby R lines at 90 GPa is similar to that at ambient pressure. Thus, quasi-hydrostatic pressure near 100 GPa can be obtained by using solid argon as pressure medium. Moreover, the red shifts with pressures of the peak positions at 14 938 and 14 431 cm-1 in ruby emission spectra, were also examined. It concluded that the line, 14 938 cm-1, can be adopted in the pressure calibration.
A Study on Calculation of the Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficients of Metals
ZHENG Wei-Tao, DING Tao, ZHONG Feng-Lan, ZHANG Jian-Min, ZHANG Rui-Lin
1994, 8(4): 302-305 .   doi: 10.11858/gywlxb.1994.04.010
[Abstract](15931) [PDF 1350KB](1098)
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Based on the expression of pressure at temperature T and in terms of the universal equation of state Debye model and the thermodynamic relations, a general expression for the calculation of the linear thermal expansion coefficients of metals is obtained. This formula applied to the calculation of Al, Cu, Pb. Calculated results are in good agreement with the experiments.
Development of Large Volume-High Static Pressure Techniques Based on the Hinge-Type Cubic Presses
WANG Hai-Kuo, HE Duan-Wei, XU Chao, GUAN Jun-Wei, WANG Wen-Dan, KOU Zi-Li, PENG Fang
2013, 27(5): 633-661.   doi: 10.11858/gywlxb.2013.05.001
[Abstract](14034) [PDF 12118KB](982)
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The large volume press (LVP) becomes more and more popular with the scientific and technological workers in the high pressure area, because it could generate relatively higher pressure, provide better hydrostatic pressure and could be utilized in conjunction with in situ X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction and ultrasonic measurement. There have been generally two LVP techniques to generate high-pressure: the double-anvil apparatus and the multi-anvil apparatus (MAA). Hinge-type cubic presses, as the main apparatus in china, have been widely used in the fields of both scientific research and diamond industry. However, for a long time past, the maximum pressure using the conventional one-stage anvil system for hinge-type cubic press is about 6 GPa, and the techniques about two-stage apparatus (octahedral press) that could generate pressure exceed 20 GPa is blank in our country. To a certain extent, the backwardness of the LVP technology in china restricts the development of high pressure science and related subjects. In recent years, we designed two kinds of one-stage high pressure apparatus and the two-stage apparatus based on hinge-type cubic-anvil press, the one-stage high pressure apparatus and the two-stage apparatus using cemented carbide as anvils could generate pressures up to about 9 GPa and 20 GPa respectively. This article mainly reviews the mechanics structure, design of cell assembly, pressure and temperature calibration, design and preparation of the sintered diamond anvils and pressure calibration to 35 GPa using sintered diamond as two-stage anvils about the one-stage high pressure apparatus and the two-stage apparatus designed in our laboratory.
Research on Deformation Shape of Deformable Warhead
GONG Bai-Lin, LU Fang-Yun, LI Xiang-Yu
2010, 24(2): 102-106 .   doi: 10.11858/gywlxb.2010.02.004
[Abstract](8274) [PDF 1765KB](304)
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Basing on the detonation theory, the structure of the deformable warhead was simplified to be double layer cylindrical shells under the detonation. Plastic hinges were introduced into the loading section of the shell, which contacted with the deforming charge, and the deforming charge was divided into small segments accordingly. Loading and movement of these segments were analyzed. Deforming shape of the cylindrical shell under the loading with equal distribution was bulgy, and the displacement of shell segments was obtained. Deforming charge with different thickness, according to the displacement of the segment, was set up to realize the same displacement of the shell segments on the loading direction. The D-shape was achieved theoretically, and the shape of deforming charge was designed accordingly. Numerical simulation validated the feasibility of the designed plan. The results indicate that the deformable warhead with the new-designed deforming charge can realize the D-shape.
The Failure Strength Parameters of HJC and RHT Concrete Constitutive Models
ZHANG Ruo-Qi, DING Yu-Qing, TANG Wen-Hui, RAN Xian-Wen
2011, 25(1): 15-22 .   doi: 10.11858/gywlxb.2011.01.003
[Abstract](17133) [PDF 689KB](972)
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The analyzed and calculated results indicate that the concrete failure strength will decrease under higher hydrostatic pressure, when the original failure parameters of HJC and RHT models implemented in LS-DYNA and AUTODYN are adopted. A new method is introduced which using the characteristic strength of concrete to confirm the modified failure parameters of HJC and RHT models. The same physical experiment of concrete penetration was simulated using the modified HJC and RHT failure parameters respectively, and the numerical results demonstrated that the RHT model matched the experiments much better. But the numerical results with the HJC modified failure parameters were not enough satisfied, because the third invariant of the deviated stress tensor was not considered in the HJC model.
Modification of Tuler-Butcher Model with Damage Influence
JIANG Dong, LI Yong-Chi, GUO Yang
2009, 23(4): 271-276 .   doi: 10.11858/gywlxb.2009.04.006
[Abstract](10716) [PDF 402KB](774)
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A modificatin of Tuler-Butcher model including damage influence was presented, which was incorporated into a hydrodynamic one-dimensional finite difference computer code, to simulate the process of spall fracture of 45 steel and Al-Li alloy. The calculated results are in good agreement with experimental data, and shows the correctness of the model.
Recent Progresses in Some Fields of High-Pressure Physics Relevant to Earth Sciences Achieved by Chinese Scientists
LIU Xi, DAI Li-Dong, DENG Li-Wei, FAN Da-Wei, LIU Qiong, NI Huai-Wei, SUN Qiang, WU Xiang, YANG Xiao-Zhi, ZHAI Shuang-Meng, ZHANG Bao-Hua, ZHANG Li, LI He-Ping
2017, 31(6): 657-681.   doi: 10.11858/gywlxb.2017.06.001
[Abstract](10938) [FullText HTML](4683) [PDF 2527KB](4683)
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In the last 10 years or so, nearly all major Chinese universities, schools and research institutes with strong Earth science programs showed strong interest in developing a new research branch of High-Pressure Earth Sciences.As a result, many young Chinese scientists with good training from the universities in the west countries were recruited.This directly led to a fast growing period of about 10 years for the Chinese high-pressure mineral physics research field.Here we take the advantage of celebrating the 30th anniversary of launching the Chinese Journal of High Pressure Physics, and present a brief summary of the new accomplishments made by the Chinese scientists in the fields of high-pressure mineral physics relevant to Earth sciences.The research fields include:(1) phase transitions in the lower mantle; (2) high spin-low spin transitions of iron in lower mantle minerals; (3) physical properties of the Earth core; (4) electrical measurements of rocks; (5) electrical measurements of minerals; (6) elasticity of minerals (especially equation of states); (7) high-pressure spectroscopic studies; (8) chemical diffusions in minerals; (9) ultrasonic measurements under high pressure; (10) physical properties of silicate melts; (11) geological fluids.In sum, the last 10 years have seen a rapid development of the Chinese high-pressure mineral physics, with the number of scientific papers increasing enormously and the impact of the scientific findings enhancing significantly.With this good start, the next 10 years will be critical and require all Chinese scientists in the research field to play active roles in their scientific activities, if a higher and advanced level is the goal for the Chinese mineral physics community.

Experiment and Numerical Simulation of Cylindrical Explosive Isostatic Pressing
CHEN Lang, LU Jian-Ying, ZHANG Ming, HAN Chao, FENG Chang-Gen
2008, 22(2): 113-117 .   doi: 10.11858/gywlxb.2008.02.001
[Abstract](13563) [PDF 1180KB](806)
Abstract:
The experiments of cylindrical explosive isostatic pressing were carried out. The internal temperatures in pressed explosives were measured by thermocouples. A thermal/structural coupled model of the explosive isostatic pressing was set up. The numerical simulations of cylindrical explosive were conducted. The calculated pressures and temperatures in explosives were given. The deformations,pressures and temperatures distribution were analyzed. The calculated results indicated that each surface center of the cylindrical explosive was sunken by isostatic pressing. During the isostatic pressing of cylindrical explosive, the internal temperature of the explosives increases, and the temperature and pressure are not uniform.
Perimeter-Area Relation of Fractal Island
LONG Qi-Wei
1990, 4(4): 259-262 .   doi: 10.11858/gywlxb.1990.04.004
[Abstract](15649) [PDF 1508KB](2338)
Abstract:
The relationship of perimeter with area (P/A relation) of fractal island is discussed. It is shown that Mandelbrot's fractal relation between Koch perimeter and area does not hold in the island with finite self-similar generations. This might be the reason why the fractal dimension measured with P/A relation varied with the length of yardstick in previous work.
Long-Distance Flight Performances of Spherical Fragments
TAN Duo-Wang, WEN Dian-Ying, ZHANG Zhong-Bin, YU Chuan, XIE Pan-Hai
2002, 16(4): 271-275 .   doi: 10.11858/gywlxb.2002.04.006
[Abstract](14167) [PDF 2450KB](867)
Abstract:
Using two-stage light gas gun and laser technique for velocity easurement, we studied the long-distance flight performances of spherical fragments with different materials and different diameters. The flight distance is 60~120 m, and the initial velocity is 1.2~2.2 km/s. The experimental results show that: (1) the velocity attenuation coefficient of spherical fragment is constant, and (2) the air drag coefficient is slightly affected by the initial velocity of spherical fragment, the air drag coefficient is a linear function of initial velocity.
Factors Analysis of Debris Cloud's Shape of Hypervelocity Impact
TANG Mi, BAI Jing-Song, LI Ping, ZHANG Zhan-Ji
2007, 21(4): 425-432 .   doi: 10.11858/gywlxb.2007.04.016
[Abstract](13292) [PDF 1599KB](715)
Abstract:
The numerical simulations of hypervelocity impact of Al-spheres on bumper at normal are carried out using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) technique. The simulation results are compared with experimental results, and the simulated hole diameters of bumper and debris cloud are well consistent with experimental results. The effect of impact velocity, bumper thickness, projectile diameter, materials, shape of projectile, interval on produced debris cloud are further analyzed. Regarding the length and diameter as index, orthogonal design method is applied to analyze the primary and secondary relations on the debris cloud's index of the three factors, that is impact velocity, bumper thickness and projectile diameter. The results indicate that bumper thickness is the main influence factor of debris cloud's length while projectile diameter is the main influence factor of debris cloud's diameter.
Design of the Sample Assembly for Ultrasonic Measurement at High Pressure and 300 K in Six-Side Anvil Cell
WANG Qing-Song, WANG Zhi-Gang, BI Yan
2006, 20(3): 331-336 .   doi: 10.11858/gywlxb.2006.03.019
[Abstract](10797) [PDF 411KB](632)
Abstract:
We introduced briefly the principle of design of sample assembly for ultrasonic measurements at high pressure, and designed a new kind of sample assembly to measure the isothermal compression of Al and Cu at 300 K. Ideal quasi-hydrostatic loading was realized, and high-quality ultrasonic signals were obtained under high pressure. It was indicated that the design of sample assembly was reasonable. We analyzed in brief main uncertainty of ultrasonic measurement in six-side anvil cell at 300 K.
Detonation Shock Dynamics Calibration of JB-9014 Explosive at Ambient Temperature
TAN Duo-Wang, FANG Qing, ZHANG Guang-Sheng, HE Zhi
2009, 23(3): 161-166 .   doi: 10.11858/gywlxb.2009.03.001
[Abstract](14202) [PDF 794KB](807)
Abstract:
Detonation shock dynamics (DSD) is an approximation to the reactive Euler equations that allows numerically efficient tracking of curved detonation waves. The DSD parameters are the velocity curvature relation and the boundary angle. A computer code was developed to facilitate the calibration of these parameters for JB-9014 insensitive high explosive using the generalized optics model of DSD. Calibration data were obtained from measurements of the detonation velocities and fronts in JB-9014 rate sticks at ambient temperature, with diameters of 10~30 mm. The steady state detonation velocities and fronts predicted by these DSD parameters are in very good agreement with experiment.
Shock Wave Physics: The Coming Challenges and Exciting Opportunities in the New Century-Introduction of the 12th International Conference of Shock Compression of Condensed Matter (SCCM-2001)
GONG Zi-Zheng
2002, 16(2): 152-160 .   doi: 10.11858/gywlxb.2002.02.012
[Abstract](14138) [PDF 500KB](857)
Abstract:
The 12th Biennial International Conference of the APS Topical Group on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter (SCCM-2001) was introduced. Papers presented in SCCM-2001 were surveyed and the recent progresses on shock compression of condensed matter were retrospected. The basic paradigms and the great achievements of the physics and mechanics of condensed matter at high dynamic pressure and stress were surveyed and revaluated. The coming challenges and exciting opportunities of shock wave physics in the 21 century were prospected.
Design and Temperature Calibration for Heater Cell of Split-Sphere High Pressure Apparatus Based on the Hinge-Type Cubic-Anvil Press
CHEN Xiao-Fang, HE Duan-Wei, WANG Fu-Long, ZHANG Jian, LI Yong-Jun, FANG Lei-Ming, LEI Li, KOU Zi-Li
2009, 23(2): 98-104 .   doi: 10.11858/gywlxb.2009.02.004
[Abstract](14730) [PDF 4054KB](811)
Abstract:
A new type of heater cell for the split-sphere high pressure apparatus based on the hinge-type cubic-anvil press was reported. This heating apparatus has the advantages of being simple, low cost, fast temperature rising, good heat insulation, and the temperature signal can be easily extracted. Carbon tube was used as a heating element for side-heating in our experiments. The size of the sample in the cell can reach 3 mm in diameter, and 7 mm in height. The relationship between the heating electric power and cell temperature was calibrated with Pt6%Rh-Pt30%Rt thermocouples under different pressures. The experimental results indicate that the temperature can reach 1 700 ℃ under the oil hydraulic pressure of 40 MPa (cell pressure is about 10 GPa).The temperature can keep stable for more than 2 h under a fixed power.
The Constitutive Relationship between High Pressure-High Strain Rate and Low Pressure-High Strain Rate Experiment
CHEN Da-Nian, LIU Guo-Qing, YU Yu-Ying, WANG Huan-Ran, XIE Shu-Gang
2005, 19(3): 193-200 .   doi: 10.11858/gywlxb.2005.03.001
[Abstract](10713) [PDF 416KB](772)
Abstract:
It is indicated that the constitutive equations at high strain rates proposed by Johnson-Cook(J-C), Zerilli-Armstrong (Z-A) and Bodner-Parton (B-P) collapse the data of flow stress in compression, tension, torsion, and shear into simple curve with the scalar quatities 'effective' stress and 'effective' strain, however, the collapsed data of flow stress did not include the data in the planar shock wave tests. The SCG constitutive equation proposed by Steinberg et al for the planar shock wave tests is discussed, which describes the coupled high pressure and high strain rate effects on the plastic deformation of materials. Basing on the recent experiments at elevated temperatures and high strain rates and the shear strength measurements during shock loading, the flow stress for tungsten at high pressure and high strain rates is estimated with J-C and SCG constitutive equations, respectively. It is concluded that the J-C, Z-A and B-P constitutive equations may not be appropriate to describe the plastic behavior of materials at high pressure and high strain rates, comparing with SCG constitutive equation. It is emphasized that the physical background of the constitutive equation at high pressure and high strain rates is different from that at low pressure and high strain rates.
Explosive Shock Synthesis of Wurtzite Type Boron Nitride
TAN Hua, HAN Jun-Wan, WANG Xiao-Jiang, SU Lin-Xiang, LIU Li, LIU Jiang, CUI Ling
1991, 5(4): 241-253 .   doi: 10.11858/gywlxb.1991.04.001
[Abstract](11957) [PDF 4689KB](2141)
Abstract:
Reported in the paper are techniques of wurtzite type boron nitride (wBN) synthesis from graphite type BN (gBN) by means of shock compressions created via explosive detonation. Recovered samples after shock processing are treated with molten alkalis and hydrochloric acid. Despite that the domestic gBN materials we used are far inferior, both in the crystallinities and particle sizes, to those used in foreign countries for the purpose of shock synthesis of wBN, the yield of our wBN reaches 11 to 12 g per shot, with a convertion ratio over 50%; X-ray diffraction and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry analyses reveal that the total impurity content of this chemically extracted wurtzite type boron nitride product is less than 0.5%. Four different starting gBN from different manufacturers were used in the experiments to synthesis wBN under the same conditions of shock compressions. It is found that the yield of wBN is closely related to the crystallinity of the starting gBN materials. Specific area measurements and XRD analysis indicate that our wBN is a polycrystal super-fine powder material with average particle size of 0.1 m, which consists of many primary crystallites of 17.5 nm in dimension. Thermal stability of our wBN powder is characterized by the emergence of an exothermic peak in the atmospheric gas condition from DTA analysis. Initial temperature of this exothermic reaction is about 1 055 K and peak temperature 1 238 K.
Phase Evolution of Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass Prepared by Shock-Wave Quenching under High Temperature and High Pressure
YANG Chao, CHEN Wei-Ping, ZHAN Zai-Ji, JIANG Jian-Zhong
2007, 21(3): 283-288 .   doi: 10.11858/gywlxb.2007.03.011
[Abstract](13950) [PDF 534KB](701)
Abstract:
Phase evolution (PH) of Zr41Ti14Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5 bulk metallic glass (BMG) prepared by shock-wave quenching has been studied under high-temperature and high-pressure using in situ synchrotron radiation energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction. The results show that the primarily precipitated phase is Zr2Be17 at applied pressures, but the subsequent PH processes are different. The crystallization temperature increases with pressure, but with a sudden drop at about 6.0 GPa. Compared with experimental results of the BMG prepared by water quenching, it can be concluded that crystallization temperature of the BMGs prepared by shock-wave quenching and water quenching all drop at the same pressure region, at which their PHs are different from those of other pressures. The different PHs and the drop of crystallization temperature may be attributed to that the BMG possesses different atomic configuration at different pressures.

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