地球内核超离子态铁合金及其效应

何宇 孙士川 李和平

何宇, 孙士川, 李和平. 地球内核超离子态铁合金及其效应[J]. 高压物理学报, 2024, 38(3): 030202. doi: 10.11858/gywlxb.20240707
引用本文: 何宇, 孙士川, 李和平. 地球内核超离子态铁合金及其效应[J]. 高压物理学报, 2024, 38(3): 030202. doi: 10.11858/gywlxb.20240707
HE Yu, SUN Shichuan, LI Heping. Superionic Iron Alloys in Earth’s Inner Core and Their Effects[J]. Chinese Journal of High Pressure Physics, 2024, 38(3): 030202. doi: 10.11858/gywlxb.20240707
Citation: HE Yu, SUN Shichuan, LI Heping. Superionic Iron Alloys in Earth’s Inner Core and Their Effects[J]. Chinese Journal of High Pressure Physics, 2024, 38(3): 030202. doi: 10.11858/gywlxb.20240707

地球内核超离子态铁合金及其效应

doi: 10.11858/gywlxb.20240707
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(42074104);中国科学院青年交叉团队项目(JCTD-2022-16)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    何 宇(1985-),男,博士,研究员,主要从事高温高压下地球内部物质性质的计算模拟研究.E-mail:heyu@mail.gyig.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: O521.2; P313

Superionic Iron Alloys in Earth’s Inner Core and Their Effects

  • 摘要: 超离子态介于固态与液态之间,被认为广泛存在于地球和行星内部。计算研究发现,在地球内核温度压力条件下,铁-氢、铁-碳、铁-氧合金处于超离子态,表现为氢、碳、氧等元素在固态铁合金中像液体一样快速流动。流动的轻元素导致铁合金软化及地震波速降低,与地球物理观测到的内核密度亏损和低剪切波速的特征一致。内核超离子态铁-氢合金可以与地磁场发生相互作用,在偶极地磁场的驱动下形成定向排列组构,从而解释了内核的各向异性结构成因。内核超离子态铁-轻元素合金的发现更新了人们对内核物态的认知,对掌握地球内核的结构、组成和演化以及内核结构与地球磁场的关系等具有重要意义。

     

  • 图  常压下H和C在金属中的扩散系数随温度的变化关系[39]

    Figure  1.  Diffusion coefficients of H and C in different metals versus temperature at normal pressure[39]

    图  超离子态和液态下Fe-C、Fe-H、Fe-O合金中Fe和轻元素(C、H、O)的MSD随模拟时间的变化关系

    Figure  2.  MSD-time curves of light elements (C, H, and O) in superionic and liquid Fe-C, Fe-H and Fe-O alloys

    图  260和360 GPa下C、H、O在hcp铁合金中的扩散系数随温度的变化关系

    Figure  3.  Diffusion coefficients of C, H, and O in hcp-Fe versus temperature at 260 and 360 GPa

    图  360 GPa下超离子态hcp相FeH0.25、FeO0.0625和FeC0.0625的纵波波速(vP)和横波波速(vS)随温度的变化(文献中的计算结果:hcp-Fe的波速和预熔化效应(蓝色)[52]、6600 K时bcc-Fe的波速(橙色)[58]、5000 K时bcc-Fe13Si3的Voigt模型波速(青色)以及Voigt-Ruess-Hill(VRH)波速(紫色)[59]

    Figure  4.  Compressional (vP) and shear (vS) wave velocities in hcp-FeH0.25, hcp-FeO0.0625 and hcp-FeC0.0625 as a function of temperature at 360 GPa upon superionic transition (In comparison with previous calculation results of pure hcp-Fe with the effect of pre-melting (blue symbols)[52], seismic velocities in bcc-Fe at 6600 K (orange symbols)[58], and seismic velocities in bcc-Fe13Si3 at 5000 K with Voigt and Voigt-Ruess-Hill (VRH) model, respectively (cyan and purple symbols)[59].)

    图  (a) 内核中地磁场示意图以及随深度变化的各向异性构造变化[36],(b) 蓝色区域的超离子态波速模型与观测值的对比[66],(c) 最内核(绿色区域)模型波速与观测值的对比[22, 27, 67]

    Figure  5.  (a) Schematic diagram of poloidal and toroidal geomagnetic field in the inner core (IC) and depth-dependent anisotropic texture change[36]; (b) the superionic model at the depth of blue area in comparison with geophysical observation data[66]; (c) the superionic model of innermost inner core (green area) in comparison with geophysical observation data[22, 27, 67]

    表  1  H、O、C在超离子态铁-轻元素合金中的扩散活化焓和超离子态转变温度

    Table  1.   Diffusion enthalpy of H, O, and C in superionic Fe-light element alloys and their superionic transition temperatures

    Alloy Pressure/GPa D0/(cm2·s−1) ΔH/eV Ts/K
    FeH0.25 260 0.148 1.58 2000
    360 0.317 2.14 2230
    FeO0.0625 260 0.079 1.62 2350
    360 0.067 1.72 2630
    FeC0.0625 260 0.087 1.83 2600
    360 0.074 1.60 2360
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  • 收稿日期:  2024-01-09
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