高能量密度氮的研究进展

袁嘉男 李建福 王晓丽

袁嘉男, 李建福, 王晓丽. 高能量密度氮的研究进展[J]. 高压物理学报. doi: 10.11858/gywlxb.20230797
引用本文: 袁嘉男, 李建福, 王晓丽. 高能量密度氮的研究进展[J]. 高压物理学报. doi: 10.11858/gywlxb.20230797
YUAN Jianan, LI Jianfu, WANG Xiaoli. Research Progress of High Energy Density Nitrogen[J]. Chinese Journal of High Pressure Physics. doi: 10.11858/gywlxb.20230797
Citation: YUAN Jianan, LI Jianfu, WANG Xiaoli. Research Progress of High Energy Density Nitrogen[J]. Chinese Journal of High Pressure Physics. doi: 10.11858/gywlxb.20230797

高能量密度氮的研究进展

doi: 10.11858/gywlxb.20230797
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(11974154);山东省自然科学基金(ZR2022MA004);泰山学者工程专项经费;烟台市省级以上领军人才专项配套经费
详细信息
    作者简介:

    袁嘉男(1994-),男,博士,讲师,主要从事高压下富氮体系研究. E-mail:jnyuan@ytu.edu.cn

    通讯作者:

    李建福(1977-),男,博士,教授,主要从事高压下物质结构与性质研究. E-mail:jianfuli@ytu.edu.cn

    王晓丽(1976-),女,博士,教授,主要从事高压下物质结构与性质研究. E-mail:xlwang@ytu.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: O521.2

Research Progress of High Energy Density Nitrogen

  • 摘要: 氮在常压下是非常稳定的元素,以氮气分子形式存在。研究发现,氮在高温高压下能够形成聚合结构,这种结构具有极高的能量密度,而且分解产物为无污染的氮气,从应用角度上看,它能够作为新型环保高能量密度材料。随后,人们对其进行了大量的研究,得到了氮在高压条件下的相图,并且合成出立方偏转氮、层状聚合氮等结构。然而,纯氮聚合结构的合成条件比较严苛,在常压下很难保存。人们又转向分子结构氮和惰性气体氮化物等,希望能够得到常压下稳定的高能量密度氮结构。为此,针对目前高能量密度氮的理论和实验进展进行了简要的介绍,并对未来高能量密度氮的发展方向进行了探讨。

     

  • 图  (a) cg-N的原胞和延伸结构,(b) cg-N的XRD谱(波长λ=0.41686 Å)[8]

    Figure  1.  (a) Primitive cell and extended structure of cg-N; (b) XRD spectrum of cg-N (wave length λ=0.41686 Å)[8]

    图  (a) Pba2和P212121的原胞和延伸结构[15],(b) N10的结构及ELF[20],(c) Pnnm相的能带结构和各种结构的带隙随压强的变化[21],(d) 100~400 GPa压强区间聚合氮的相图[15],(e) 100~500 GPa压强范围内聚合氮的相图[20],(f) 0~14 TPa压强范围内聚合氮的相图[22]HHBPHPba2分别为聚合氮、BP相和Pba2相的焓,ΔH为聚合氮与P4/nbm相的焓差)

    Figure  2.  (a) Primitive cell and extended structures of Pba2 and P212121[15]; (b) structure and ELF of N10[20]; (c) band structure of Pnnm phase and the band gap variation with pressure for various structures[21]; (d) phase diagram of polynitrogen from 100 GPa to 400 GPa[15]; (e) phase diagram of polynitrogen from 100 GPa to 500 GPa[20]; (f) phase diagram of polynitrogen from 0 TPato 14 TPa[22] (H, HBP, HPba2 represent the enthalpies of nitrogen polymeric phases, BP phase and Pba2 phase, respectively,and ΔH represents the enthalpy difference between various pure nitrogen polymeric phases and the P4/nbm phase.)

    图  (a) 室温150 GPa下激光加热氮气的拉曼光谱、LP-N的2个特征振动频移随压力的变化与cg-N的对比、层状Pba2的晶体结构与三维结构的对比(左侧插图中,A、B、C分别代表黑色非晶态、LP-N、cg-N)[23],(b) HLP-N的X射线散射谱以及晶体结构[25],(c) BP-N的晶体结构[26]

    Figure  3.  (a) Raman spectra of laser-heated nitrogen at 150 GPa and ambient temperature, the pressure-dependent shifts of two characteristic vibration of LP-N shown in comparison with that of cg-N, and the comparison of the crystal structure and three-dimensional structure of layered Pba2 (A, B and C represent black amorphous, LP-N, and cg-N, respectively)[23]; (b) X-ray scattering spectrum and crystal structure of HLP-N[25]; (c) the crystal structure of BP-N[26]

    图  (a) N8的分子结构和晶体结构[34],(b) 0~60 GPa压强范围内各结构的焓[34],(c) N6链的电子结构[35],(d) N6分子组成的晶体结构及其焓[35]

    Figure  4.  (a) Structure and crystal structure of N8 molecule[34]; (b) enthalpy values of various structures from 0 GPa to 60 GPa[34];(c) electronic structure of N6 chain[35]; (d) crystal structure and enthalpy values of N6 molecule[35]

    图  (a) V型、P型以及I型N10的晶体结构[38],(b) N10分子的可能合成路径[39],(c) 0~80 GPa压强区间的焓值[38],(d) N16的分子结构[40],(e) N16分子的分解路径[40]

    Figure  5.  (a) Crystal structures of N10 for V-type, P-type, and I-type[38]; (b) possible synthesis path of N10 molecule[39]; (c) enthalpy values from 0 GPa to 80 GPa[38]; (d) structure of N16 molecule[40]; (e) decomposition path of N16 molecule[40]

    图  (a) P4/nmm-BeN4的成键模式[54],(b) P21/m-CuN5的可能合成路径[51],(c) Ga-N化合物的晶体结构[53],(d) 85 GPa下Ga-N化合物的XRD谱[53]

    Figure  6.  (a) Chemical bonding pattern of P4/nmm-BeN4[54]; (b) possible synthesis route of P21/m-CuN5[51]; (c) crystal structures of Ga-N compounds[53]; (d) XRD patterns of Ga-N compounds at 85 GPa[53]

    图  (a) XeN6的晶体结构和成键性质[55],(b) HeN4的晶体结构和成键性质[56],(c) He-N体系的晶体结构[57],(d) Ne-N体系的晶体结构以及纯氮框架[58]

    Figure  7.  (a) Crystal structure and bonding properties of XeN6[55]; (b) crystal structure and bonding properties of HeN4[56]; (c) crystal structure of He-N compounds[57]; (d) crystal structures of Ne-N compounds and pure nitrogen[58]

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2023-11-15
  • 修回日期:  2023-12-26
  • 网络出版日期:  2024-03-30

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